5.1 Evidence for Evolution

  1. Which of these structures is not homologous?

2. Which of the following are used as evidence for evolution?
  1. Homologous structures II. Selective breeding of domesticated animals III. Overproduction of offspring

3. Which of the following represent homologous features?

4. What is evolution?

5. The following diagrams (not to scale) represent the fossilized forelimbs of three horses living at different times, none of which are alive today. The diagrams provide evidence for which of the following?

6. The Atlantic cod (Gadus callarias) is a fish which lays about 5 000 000 eggs in its lifetime. On average, only two of these eggs survive to become adult cod. How does this promote evolution?

7. What characteristics describe homologous structures?

8. What is accepted by scientists as evidence for evolution?
  1. Similarities in bone structure between the wings of a bat and the fins of a porpoise II. Changes in dog breeds caused by artificial selection III. Extinction of dinosaurs

9. Which example provides evidence of evolution?

10. What is the biological definition of the term evolution?

11. Which evidence for evolution do the common features in the bone structure of vertebrate limbs provide?

12. The graph shows the song duration of birds from the genus Phylloscopus sampled from west to east throughout Northern Europe and Northern Asia.   What concept do these data illustrate?

13. Cladograms can be created by comparing DNA or protein sequences. What is the reason that cladograms based on DNA sequences are more reliable predictors of the phylogenetic relationship of species than cladograms based on protein sequences?

14. The pictures show skeletons of a frog (Conraua goliath) and of a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). What is the evolutionary relationship between X and Y?

15. The bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes infections related to the human reproductive system. The graph shows the percentage of samples in which this bacterium showed resistance to six antibiotics over a period of ten years.   What is a possible explanation for the total percentage resistance being larger than 100% in 2010?

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