IB DIPLOMA BIOLOGY 5.1 Evidence for Evolution September 5, 2020September 5, 2020 admin 0 Comments Evolution and biodiversity, IBDP Biology Which of these structures is not homologous? ABCD2. Which of the following are used as evidence for evolution? Homologous structures II. Selective breeding of domesticated animals III. Overproduction of offspring I and II only I and III only II and III onlyI, II and III3. Which of the following represent homologous features?Wings in birds and insects The appendix in humans and horsesFins in fish and wings in birdsThe striped coat of the zebra and the tiger4. What is evolution?A measure of the relative survival and reproductive success of an individual A cumulative change in the genetically controlled characteristics of a population A physical change during an organism’s life that is inherited by its offspring A random change in the proportions of alleles from generation to generation5. The following diagrams (not to scale) represent the fossilized forelimbs of three horses living at different times, none of which are alive today. The diagrams provide evidence for which of the following?Pentadactyl limbDomestication of animalsHomologous structuresChange in the characteristics of species6. The Atlantic cod (Gadus callarias) is a fish which lays about 5 000 000 eggs in its lifetime. On average, only two of these eggs survive to become adult cod. How does this promote evolution?All offspring are genetically identical, so become better adapted.Laying many eggs provides food for other species to survive and become better adapted.Some young cod change to become adapted to the environment and survive and pass on their genes.Offspring with favourable variations survive and pass on their genes.7. What characteristics describe homologous structures?They have the same ancestral origin but may have different functions.They have the same ancestral origin and always have the same function.They have different ancestral origins and may have different functions.They have different ancestral origins but always have the same function.8. What is accepted by scientists as evidence for evolution? Similarities in bone structure between the wings of a bat and the fins of a porpoise II. Changes in dog breeds caused by artificial selection III. Extinction of dinosaurs I onlyI and II onlyI and III onlyI, II and III9. Which example provides evidence of evolution?White wings of a peppered moth turn black in industrial areas.Antibiotic resistant bacteria replace non-resistant bacteria over time.Some Galapagos finches’ beaks become smaller during dry years.Polar bears are found in warmer latitudes following global warming.10. What is the biological definition of the term evolution?The changes shown by fossils over millions of yearsThe transmission of favourable variations to offspringThe cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a populationThe promotion of variation in a species by sexual reproduction11. Which evidence for evolution do the common features in the bone structure of vertebrate limbs provide?Adaptive radiationDivergent radiationConvergent evolutionDiscontinuous variation12. The graph shows the song duration of birds from the genus Phylloscopus sampled from west to east throughout Northern Europe and Northern Asia. What concept do these data illustrate?Gradual divergence. Adaptive radiationInterbreeding populationsPunctuated equilibrium13. Cladograms can be created by comparing DNA or protein sequences. What is the reason that cladograms based on DNA sequences are more reliable predictors of the phylogenetic relationship of species than cladograms based on protein sequences?Amino acids are not as chemically stable as DNA nucleotides.DNA mutates but amino acids do not.Several different triplets of bases can code for the same amino acid.There are 20 different amino acids but only 4 nucleotides14. The pictures show skeletons of a frog (Conraua goliath) and of a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). What is the evolutionary relationship between X and Y?They are analogousX is analogous and Y is homologous.They are homologousThey are neither homologous nor analogous.15. The bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes infections related to the human reproductive system. The graph shows the percentage of samples in which this bacterium showed resistance to six antibiotics over a period of ten years. What is a possible explanation for the total percentage resistance being larger than 100% in 2010?People do not take the antibiotics as prescribed.More people have been sampled in that year.There was an epidemic of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in that year.Some bacteria are resistant to more than one antibiotic.