5.4 Cladistics

 
  1. The table shows the number of differences between humans and other selected organisms for the protein cytochrome c oxidase. This protein, consisting of 104 amino acids, is located in the mitochondria and functions as an enzyme during cell respiration.If the data were used to draw a cladogram, which chordates would be furthest apart from humans?  
   





2. Cladograms can be created by comparing DNA or protein sequences. What is the reason that cladograms based on DNA sequences are more reliable predictors of the phylogenetic relationship of species than cladograms based on protein sequences?





3. 3. The diagram below is a cladogram. Identify the two most closely related organisms.





4. Identify the species to which the Bonobo is most distantly related.





5. What characteristics describe homologous structures?





6. Which of the following represent homologous features?





7. Which of the following are used as evidence for evolution?
  1. Homologous structures II. Selective breeding of domesticated animals III. Overproduction of offspring





8. Which evidence for evolution do the common features in the bone structure of vertebrate limbs provide?





9. Taxonomists aim to place species into genera, families and higher taxa according to their evolutionary origins. This is known as -





10. The image shows part of a cladogram. Using the cladogram, identify one diagnostic feature that characterizes the given group of vertebrates at A.




11. The image shows part of a cladogram. Using the cladogram, identify one diagnostic feature that characterizes the given groups of vertebrates at B.





12. The image shows part of a cladogram. Using the cladogram, identify one diagnostic feature that characterizes the given groups of vertebrates at C.





13. A group of organisms that have evolved from a common ancestor is called -





14. Human eye and Octopus eye are -





15. A tree diagram showing the similarities and differences between different species is called -





16. Cladograms are mostly based on -





17. Which statement is false ?






18. How many of the below examples are clades?    





19. The branching points in a cladogram are called as -





20. The central trunk of a cladogram that indicates the ancestor common to all groups branching from it is called -





21. Molecular evidence in evolution includes -





22. The independent evolution of similar features in species of different periods or epochs in time is called as -





23. The accumulation of differences between closely related populations within a species, leading to speciation is called as -





24.  There are traits that are shared by two or more different species that share a common ancestor. These traits are similar in structure or genetics, but may have very different functions and appearances. These are called as -





25. Traits that have similarity of function and superficial resemblance of structures but that have different origins are called -







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